Legionella: What Is It and How to Control It


What is Legionella? Legionella is a bacterium that causes Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever. It was named after the first known outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in 1976 at an American Legion Convention. Legionnaires’ disease is a severe type of pneumonia. Pontiac fever is a less severe illness that typically resolves without hospitalization. Approximately 90% of […]

Waterborne Pathogens a Growing Concern in US Drinking Water, CDC Report Shows

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released a report summarizing waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States between 2015 and 2020. The report Surveillance of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water includes data voluntarily reported by public health agencies to the CDC through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). Data reported […]

Legionella Bacteria Water Sampling Methodology 

Legionella Bacteria Water Sampling Methodology

This blog delves into systematic approaches for Legionella water testing, offering valuable insights into best practices and recommendations to ensure the safety of your water.  Importance of quarterly Legionella sampling Building water systems are dynamic and influenced by various factors such as usage patterns, maintenance schedules, and seasonal changes in municipal water quality. These complex […]

Keeping Hospitals Safe: A Success Story with Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital 

When Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford opened its doors in 1991, it was met with an unexpected challenge: Legionella bacteria in the building’s water system. Despite the hospital’s best efforts, traditional disinfection methods failed to control the problem, which led to two tragic patient deaths.  The hospital turned to LiquiTech and the LiquiTech® Copper-Silver Ionization […]

An Examination of Dead Legs, Water Flow, and Legionella Growth 

An Examination of Dead Legs, Water Flow, and Legionella Growth

The relationship between stagnant sections in building water systems, known as dead legs, water flow conditions, and the risk of Legionella, a bacterium that causes Legionnaires’ disease, is more complex and multifaceted than commonly perceived. In this article, we explore these topics in-depth, using insights from scientific studies and valuable industry observations.  Understanding dead legs  […]

Legionella and Waterborne Pathogens 101 for Plumbing Engineers


Successful plumbing engineering involves the comprehensive understanding and meticulous control of waterborne pathogens, with a particular focus on Legionella. These harmful pathogens can infiltrate building water systems through various means, such as contaminated water sources or inadequate water treatment.   To effectively mitigate the risk of Legionella and other waterborne pathogens, plumbing engineers must possess in-depth […]

Legionella Risk Assessment: Essential Information for Building Owners and Managers

Legionella is a type of bacteria that can cause Legionnaires’ disease, a severe form of pneumonia. Unfortunately, Legionella can be found in any building, including hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hotels, and office buildings. The good news is that there are steps you can take to identify and manage the risks associated with Legionella.   What is […]

Legionella Risk in Potable Cold Water Systems 

Legionella, a waterborne pathogen, contaminates approximately half of all building water systems, including both potable and non-potable systems. It is typically introduced into building water systems from the municipal cold water supply. Once present, it can thrive in areas of the water system that offer ideal conditions for growth, such as warm water, sediment accumulation, […]

Examining the Efficacy of Copper-Silver Ionization for Management of Legionella

MARK LECHEVALLIERAMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA), WATER SCIENCE, MARCH 2023 IntroductionThis review article examined more than 80 sources of literature and studies related to copper-silver ionization system efficacy, design, maintenance, and operations, and the impact water chemistry has on its performance. ResultsPrevious research indicates that copper-silver ionization is effective for Legionella control. Other key findings of this […]

Hospitalizations Due to Selected Infections Caused by Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens and Reported Drug Resistance in the United States Older Adult Population

ELENA N. NAUMOVA, ALEXANDER LISS, JYOTSNA S. JAGAI, IRMGARD BEHLAU, JEFFREY K. GRIFFITHSPALGRAVE MACMILLAN, JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY, SEPTEMBER 2016 IntroductionThe study explores the health implications of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPP) in US drinking water, particularly focusing on vulnerable populations like the elderly. These pathogens have gained attention due to the Flint Water Crisis, […]