Legionella: What Is It and How to Control It


What is Legionella? Legionella is a bacterium that causes Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever. It was named after the first known outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in 1976 at an American Legion Convention. Legionnaires’ disease is a severe type of pneumonia. Pontiac fever is a less severe illness that typically resolves without hospitalization. Approximately 90% of […]

Corrosion: What Is It and How to Control It

What is corrosion? Corrosion is the degradation or deterioration of a material caused by a reaction to its environment. In building plumbing systems, corrosion can occur in our piping systems and water-bearing equipment due to reactions, chemicals, and impurities in the water. These processes result in uniform corrosion, pitting, cracking, or erosion, ultimately causing the […]

Biofilm: What Is It and How to Control It

biofilm what it is and how to control it

Biofilms, intricate communities of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and other microscopic entities, thrive on surfaces through a remarkable process of collaboration and self-protection. Encased within a self-produced, slime-like matrix, these microorganisms firmly anchor themselves to a variety of surfaces, from the moist lining of a water pipe to the hard enamel of our teeth. While […]

Keeping Hospitals Safe: A Success Story with Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital 

When Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford opened its doors in 1991, it was met with an unexpected challenge: Legionella bacteria in the building’s water system. Despite the hospital’s best efforts, traditional disinfection methods failed to control the problem, which led to two tragic patient deaths.  The hospital turned to LiquiTech and the LiquiTech® Copper-Silver Ionization […]

Case Study: Copper-Silver Ionization Resolves High Bacteria Levels


In 2016 while preparing to open a new patient tower, a California hospital found bacteria levels exceeding state and federal EPA limits in the building water system. To address this issue, they deployed multiple rounds of hyperchlorination, which is the process of adding an excessive amount of chlorine to the building water system in an […]

Case Study: Sediment Filtration on Cold Water System Reduces Legionella Risk


After a Northeast university achieved non-detect Legionella levels in their building’s hot water system with a LiquiTech® Copper-Silver Ionization System, they faced a new obstacle when Legionella was detected in the cold water system due to water stagnation caused by the building’s mixed-use and fluctuating occupancy.  Partnering with LiquiTech, the university implemented an innovative solution […]

Examining the Efficacy of Copper-Silver Ionization for Management of Legionella

MARK LECHEVALLIERAMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA), WATER SCIENCE, MARCH 2023 IntroductionThis review article examined more than 80 sources of literature and studies related to copper-silver ionization system efficacy, design, maintenance, and operations, and the impact water chemistry has on its performance. ResultsPrevious research indicates that copper-silver ionization is effective for Legionella control. Other key findings of this […]

Controlling Legionella in Hospital Drinking Water: An Evidence-Based Review of Disinfection Methods

YUSEN LIN, JANET E. STOUT, VICTOR YUCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, FEBRUARY 2011 IntroductionThis study reviewed the efficacy of different disinfection methods for controlling Legionella in hospitals, including copper-silver ionization, chlorine dioxide, hyperchlorination, monochloramine, UV, point-of-use filtration, and superheat-and-flush. The four criteria each disinfection method must meet to validate efficacy include: ResultsA summary […]

Intermittent Use of Copper-Silver Ionization for Legionella Control in Water Distribution Systems: A Potential Option in Buildings Housing Individuals at Low Risk of Infection

ZEMING LIU, JANET E. STOUT, MARCIE BOLDIN, JOHN RUGH, WARREN F. DIVEN, VICTOR L. YUOXFORD ACADEMIC, CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, JANUARY 1998 IntroductionThis study evaluated three healthcare facilities colonized with Legionella to determine if: ResultsThe Legionella positivity rate (percentage of test sites positive for Legionella) was significantly reduced for the two test buildings using copper-silver ionization. Both […]

Experiences of the First 16 Hospitals Using Copper-Silver Ionization for Legionella Control: Implications for the Evaluation of Other Disinfection Modalities

JANET E. STOUT, VICTOR L. YUCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, AUGUST 2003 IntroductionThis study examined 16 acute care hospitals using copper-silver ionization as a disinfection method. Surveys were deployed in 1995 and 2000 to gather information from each hospital. The 2000 survey was up to 11 years after installation for some hospitals. ResultsBefore […]