The Biocide Chlorine Dioxide Stimulates Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis by Activation of the Histidine Kinase KinC

MOSHE SHEMESH, ROBERTO KOLTER, RICHARD LOSICKAMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MICROBIOLOGY, JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, DECEMBER 2010 IntroductionThe goal of this study was to examine how biofilm formation is stimulated by chlorine dioxide, a chemical that is typically very effective and fast-acting against bacteria. The study examined how chlorine dioxide works and how the biofilm acts as a protector […]

Cluster of Carbapenemase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among Patients in an Adult Intensive Care Unit

MEGAN E. CAHILL, MARTHA JAWORSKI, VICTORIA HARCY, ERIN YOUNG, D. CAL HAM, PAIGE GABLE, KRIS K. CARTERCDC, MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT, AUGUST 2023 IntroductionThe report discusses an examination into the infections of carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CP-CRPA) in an Idaho hospital (Hospital A) between September 2021 and January 2022. The infections present a significant challenge […]

Examining the Efficacy of Copper-Silver Ionization for Management of Legionella

MARK LECHEVALLIERAMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION (AWWA), WATER SCIENCE, MARCH 2023 IntroductionThis review article examined more than 80 sources of literature and studies related to copper-silver ionization system efficacy, design, maintenance, and operations, and the impact water chemistry has on its performance. ResultsPrevious research indicates that copper-silver ionization is effective for Legionella control. Other key findings of this […]

Hospitalizations Due to Selected Infections Caused by Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens and Reported Drug Resistance in the United States Older Adult Population

ELENA N. NAUMOVA, ALEXANDER LISS, JYOTSNA S. JAGAI, IRMGARD BEHLAU, JEFFREY K. GRIFFITHSPALGRAVE MACMILLAN, JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY, SEPTEMBER 2016 IntroductionThe study explores the health implications of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPP) in US drinking water, particularly focusing on vulnerable populations like the elderly. These pathogens have gained attention due to the Flint Water Crisis, […]

Controlling Legionella in Hospital Drinking Water: An Evidence-Based Review of Disinfection Methods

YUSEN LIN, JANET E. STOUT, VICTOR YUCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, FEBRUARY 2011 IntroductionThis study reviewed the efficacy of different disinfection methods for controlling Legionella in hospitals, including copper-silver ionization, chlorine dioxide, hyperchlorination, monochloramine, UV, point-of-use filtration, and superheat-and-flush. The four criteria each disinfection method must meet to validate efficacy include: ResultsA summary […]

Intermittent Use of Copper-Silver Ionization for Legionella Control in Water Distribution Systems: A Potential Option in Buildings Housing Individuals at Low Risk of Infection

ZEMING LIU, JANET E. STOUT, MARCIE BOLDIN, JOHN RUGH, WARREN F. DIVEN, VICTOR L. YUOXFORD ACADEMIC, CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, JANUARY 1998 IntroductionThis study evaluated three healthcare facilities colonized with Legionella to determine if: ResultsThe Legionella positivity rate (percentage of test sites positive for Legionella) was significantly reduced for the two test buildings using copper-silver ionization. Both […]

Experiences of the First 16 Hospitals Using Copper-Silver Ionization for Legionella Control: Implications for the Evaluation of Other Disinfection Modalities

JANET E. STOUT, VICTOR L. YUCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, AUGUST 2003 IntroductionThis study examined 16 acute care hospitals using copper-silver ionization as a disinfection method. Surveys were deployed in 1995 and 2000 to gather information from each hospital. The 2000 survey was up to 11 years after installation for some hospitals. ResultsBefore […]

Controlled Evaluation of Copper-Silver Ionization in Eradicating Legionella pneumophila from a Hospital Water Distribution System

ZEMING LIU, JANET E. STOUT, LOU TEDESCO, MARCIA BOLDING, CHARLES HWANG, WARREN F. DIVEN, VICTOR L. YUTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS, THE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, APRIL 1994 IntroductionThis study evaluated the efficacy of copper-silver ionization in a hospital with active Legionella colonization after superheat-and-flush and hyperchlorination had proven ineffective. ResultsSix months after installation, the Legionella positivity […]

Control of Legionella Contamination and Risk of Corrosion in Hospital Water Networks Following Various Disinfection Procedures

ISABELLA MARCHESI, GRETA FERRANTI, ANTONELLA MANSI, ANNA M. MARCELLONI, ANNA R. PROIETTO, NAVNEET SAINI, PAOLA BORELLA, ANNALISA BARGELLINIAMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MICROBIOLOGY, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY,  MAY 2016 IntroductionThis study evaluated four disinfection methods for their efficacy in controlling Legionella and their corrosive effects on water pipes. The four disinfection methods included: ResultsLegionella controlOf the four disinfection […]

Controlling Legionella in Hospital Water Systems: Experience With the Superheat-and-Flush Method and Copper-Silver Ionization

JANET E. STOUT, YU-SEN E. LIN, ANGELLA M. GOETZ, ROBERT R. MUDERCAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, DECEMBER 1998 IntroductionThis study evaluated the efficacy of superheat-and-flush and copper-silver ionization for Legionella control in an acute care hospital. The hospital had been using the superheat-and-flush method for 13 years but was still experiencing incidences of […]